Cervix is the bottommost part of the uterus and cervical cancer is the malignancy of the cells in the cervix. Cervical cancer develops in the cervix, the narrow and tapered opening from the vagina to the uterus. This cancer is caused due to the delirious division of cancerous abnormal cell growth in the cervix region. Cervical cancer shows no significant symptoms when in early stage, in some rare cases vaginal bleeding is seen particularly after having sexual intercourse. Large collections of cells which grow abnormally are termed as tumors and the cervix begin to swell and grow out of control and many a time might encroach upon the nearby tissues and/or spread throughout the body. Some tumors are not cancerous as they do not spread and are not life threatening, and are hence termed as benign tumors. Women who are sexually more active are usually prone to cervical cancer and clinically it is ascertained by pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, while menstruating, and experiencing pain during sex. Market analysis on cervical cancer states that nearly 99% of cervical cancer cases occur due to Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection) from an infected individual.
Nevertheless, not all of the people who are infected with HPV will develop cancer; in all probability other factors also play a significant role in the development of cervical cancer. The risk factors are:
- Immune system suppression
- HIV infection
- Tobacco smoking
- Chlamydia infection
- Having 3 or more full-term pregnancies
- Family history of cervical cancer
- Prolonged use of oral contraceptives
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and market research, cervical cancer is the second most frequently occurring cancer and the third largest reason of death in women. A certain market statistics showed that there are approximately 530,000 new cases of cervical cancer each year. Cervical cancer due to the HPV infection results in DNA mutation in the cervical cells which alter the cell growth and lead to uncontrolled cell growth. The most common type of cervical cell cancer comprise of Squamous Cell Malignancy and Adenocarcinoma. This cancer can be diagnosed with Pap Smear Test and others which include Colposcopy, HPV test, Endocervical curettage, and Biopsy.