Sepsis is known to be a lethal condition that occurs when the body’s reaction to an infection causes damage to its own organs and tissues. The familiar symptoms of Sepsis are confusion, fever, increased breathing rate and increased heart rate. There can be signs associated with a specific infection like agonizing urination with an infection in the kidney or cough with pneumonia. In infants, aged people and people with weak immune systems the temperature may be low or normal instead of being high and there may be no particular sign or symptom of infection. Inadequate blood flow or poor functioning of organs can cause severe sepsis. Low output of urine, high blood lactate, or low blood pressure can cause inadequate blood flow. When blood pressure becomes low due to sepsis and does not improve after adequate venous fluids it is called septic shock.
Sepsis is a result of immune response prompted by an infection. Generally the infection is said to be bacterial, but it can also be parasites, viruses or fungi. The urinary tract, skin, lungs, abdominal organs and brain are the common areas for the primary infections. Factors influencing risk include a weak immune system, old age or infancy from conditions like trauma, cancer, burns ordiabetes. Before antibiotics are advised the procedure of blood cultures is favored, however, bacteria in the blood are not needed for the diagnosis. To identify the possible area of infection medical imaging must be used. Different causes of the same symptoms include heart failure,anaphylaxis, pulmonary embolism,low blood volume and adrenal insufficiency.
Generally venous fluids and antibiotics are used to treat sepsis. These fluids and antibiotics are given at the earliest. Usually, the current care is executed in an intensive care unit (ICU). Medicines that boost blood pressure are given in case the fluids given are inadequate to maintain the blood pressure. In order to provide sufficient support to the kidneys and the lungs, dialysis and mechanical ventilator may be required. To provide additional guidance to the treatment, the placement of an arterial catheter and central venous catheter may be performed.
The most familiar sources of infection that lead to sepsis are the urinary tract, lungs and abdomen. It is claimed that around 50% of cases of sepsis begin as an infection mainly in the lungs. Infections that result in sepsis are usually bacterial, viral or fungal. Various bacteria that may lead to sepsis include Klebsiella, Escherichia coli,Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is extremely imperative for sepsis to be diagnosed at the earliest, rapid and adequate treatment is the key to prevent severe sepsis.