Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)Introduction

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is present in the brain and spinal cord. Sometimes its volume can rise unexpectedly due to a blockage in the blood vessels or the brain or the brain producing more than the required amount of CSF. This condition is called Hydrocephalus. This disease could result from: a birth defect such as an infection during pregnancy or an abnormality in genes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are used to identify such case. It can cause delayed growth, vision problems, chronic headaches and even brain damage. To treat this problem Ventriculostomy is performed or the doctor can insert a device called Shunt surgically.

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Market for CSF Management Devices

The global Cerebral Spinal Fluid Management Devices management devices market size was evaluated at USD 879.1 million in 2014 and is expected to reach USD 1.4 billion by 2022. Market driving factor for CSF management devices are increasing geriatric population worldwide and the increase in cases of chronic diseases. In U.S. every 2 out of 1000 new-born babies have the problem of hydrocephalus. Such large population suffering from this disease has led to the increasing demand of CSF management devices. Shunts are the most conventional methods of tackling this problem and hence their market is rose rapidly till now. However the market for drainage devices is rising even more rapidly than shunts, mainly due to the permanent nature of shunts.

Increase in the cases ofhydrocephalus associated complications such as stroke and trauma are expected to increase demand for these devices. 

Signs of Hydrocephalus

There are many symptoms of CFS flooded brain, if these are recognized early proper diagnosis is followed:

  • relatively larger head
  • downward facing eyes
  • regular seizures
  • laziness and increased sleeping
  • nausea
  • lower muscle power and energy
  • changes in personality
  • continuous and high intensity headaches
  • muscle spasms
  • delay in growth
  • loss of appetite
  • irritable mood
  • lesser bladder control
  • loss of concentration
  • difficulty in walking

An MRI or CT scan is used diagnose excess CSF present in the brain. From these tests the doctor can recognise an enlarged ventricle due to the excess CSF present in it.


Ventriculostomy involves drilling a hole in the bottom of a ventricle which is carrying the excess CSF, so it can leak away or Shunt might be inserted in the brain. A shunt is a long tube which the surgeon uses to connect the CSF flooded ventricle with the abdomen. Excess CSF is absorbed by the fluids in the stomach and is harmless now. However the shunt insertion is permanent and the patient should have it examined every once in a while.


Hydrocephalus or excess CSF in brain can be fatal if not treated early. The brain damage from such disease is permanent. The aim of the treatments is to prevent further damage, the damage already done is mostly permanent.