The energy so generated by making use of discarded useless waste is the end result of waste to energy.
Wastes like Municipal Domestic Waste are used for this purpose. The form of energy so generated can be in the form of heat, fuel or electricity. Various technologies are incorporated for this conversion and formation of a renewable source of energy. Waste to Energy management is an important and necessary part of the infrastructure of waste disposal all around the world.
The global market of Waste to Energy is expected to grow to the double of its current value in the upcoming years. This growth will be subject to the market driving factors affecting the growth of the market industry of waste to energy at a global level. Following are the market driving factors –
- Rapidly increasing industrial and domestic waste.
- Government’s support in energy generation from waste.
- Limited availability of energy generation resources.
Urban waste accumulation levels are increasing rapidly because of movement of people from rural areas to urban areas attracted towards the ease of life. Moreover the changing lifestyle and consumption of already existing urban residents is contributing in the same as well. Such increased level of waste is ought to be either reused or disposed off safely, which needs better waste management infrastructure.
Following types of waste can be utilized for generating energy-
- Solid state: Utilization of semi solid waste discharged and discarded from the industrial plants.
- Liquid state: Utilization of domestic sewage.
- Gaseous state: Utilization of gaseous waste produced in refinery.
To join hands for this purpose of generating a useful asset out of the useless liability, many companies and corporate involved in energy production are assisting the waste to energy management by letting it make use of its facilities.
Waste to energy can be bifurcated into segments based on the technology used for generating energy out of waste.
Following are the segments-
- Thermal technology
- Pyrolysis: a process in which no oxygen is used.
- Gasification: a process in which partial oxygen is used.
- Combustion: a process in which excess oxygen is used.
- Biological process: It is a process in which anaerobic decomposition of solid waste is required.
- Incineration technology: It is the most widely used technology used in Asia- pacific owing to it reducing the transporting costs by making use of landfills.
It has been observed that with the increasing industrial and domestic and municipal wastes globally, the need to bring technological advancements in the existing technology in waste to energy management system is required.