A trocar is a medical device which consists of a cannula, obturator and a seal. Cannula is a hollow tube and obturator is a plastic or metallic blade which is sharpened or none sharpened. The word trocar comes from the French word troquard, or trois-quarts which means three-quarters. The device is used during laparoscopic surgeries of abdomen. In 18th century, doctors used trocars for insertion of surgical scopes in the urinary bladder. The scientific use of trocars dates back to the 19th century when doctors used it to drain excess fluid of gases and relieve edema or bloating. George Killing performed the first documented laparoscopic surgery in 1901 with the help of trocars on a dog. In 1950s dual trocar method was introduced by German gastroenterologist Heinz Kalka. However the instrument has been in use for thousands of years. Aulis Cornelius Celsius, in his 6 volume medical encyclopedia De Medicina, described the use of trocar in 30AD. Albucasis, a physician from Arabia detailed the use of trocar in his 30 volume medical encyclopedia Kitab al-Tasrif. Today trocars are available in different sizes like 5mm, 8mm, 11mm, 12mm, and 15mm.
- Used to access and collect fluids in patient with ascitis or hydrothorax.
- Used as a portal for putting other equipments like scissors, staplers, graspers etc.
- Used for laparoscopic or keyhole surgery. It acts as a portal for insertion of cameras and other laparoscopic instruments
- Embalming- Trocars are used at the end of the embalming process to allow drainage of body fluids and organs after the vascular part of blood is replaced with embalming chemicals.
- Veterinary use- in acute cases of bloat or ruminal tympany in cattle, introduction of antibiotics and alleviation of pain
Potential complication includes perforating wounds, bowel injury, peritonitis, hemorrhage, large vessel puncture etc.
Disclaimer: The information given in this write-up is purely for educating the reader. It is not meant to be a substitute for any advice from a medical expert.