Central nervous systems (CNS) disorders or as central nervous system diseases, are a set of neurological disorders which affect the functioning and overall structure of either brain or spinal cord, which together form the central nervous system (CNS). It results in psychiatric or neurological disorders. CNS diseases can be resulted from infections, autoimmune disorders, infections, tumors, degeneration, stroke and structural defects. Neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia, mood disorder, and autism are also the adverse effects of these. Central nervous system drugs directly affect the spinal cord and the brain, and generate a response which might be used to treat or relieve a specific medical condition. These drugs can be used as anesthetics, analgesics, anti-convulsants, anti-emetics and comprise of many other therapeutic uses. Study done on Central Nervous System Drugs market states that the drugs meant for this consists of drugs used to treat neuro-diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorders and anxiety.
Drugs meant for Central Nervous System diseases
The drugs used for treating central nervous system disorders are also termed as CNS depressants. They act on the brain by having an effect on the neurotransmitter gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA). Neurotransmitters are chemicals in the brain which help in better communication amongst the cells present in the brain. Even though various classes of CNS drugs work in exclusive ways, it is with the help of their ability to escalate GABA, and by this means, suppress the activity of the brain. They generate a calming effect that is specifically beneficial to those patients who suffer from sleep disorders or anxiety. Most of these drugs are also named as tranquilizers or sedatives, both of which slow the otherwise hyper brain activity. Amongst the drugs that are widely prescribed for such purposes are:
Barbiturates – Phenobarbital, pentobarbital sodium, and mephobarbital. These are the least used for decreasing anxiety, and/or assist with sleep disorders owing to their risk of overdose. Nevertheless, they are still used in many surgical procedures and also for seizure related disorders.
Benzodiazepines – alprazolam and diazepam. Prescribed for treating panic attacks, severe stress reactions, and anxiety. Generally, benzodiazepines are not prescribed for prolonged use due to the risk for developing addiction, dependence or tolerance.
Non-benzodiazepine sleep medications – eszopiclone, zalepon, and zolpidem. All of these have different chemical structure; however have an effect on the same brain receptors as benzodiazepines.
Disclaimer: The information given in this write-up is purely for educating the reader. It is not meant to be a substitute for any advice from a medical expert.