Gonorrhea, also called drip or clap, is a contagious and infectious disease occurred by bacterium (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), which is mostly transmitted via sexual contact. This sexually transmitted disease can affect both females and males. Gonorrhea frequently affects the rectum, urethra or throat; and in females it can affect the cervix as well. This disease might also spread out when a healthy person comes in contact with the infected bodily fluids, therefore an infected mother can pass on the infection to her newly born child at the time of birth. in babies, this disease usually affects the eyes. This disease is known to spread easily, and is most common amongst young population between the age group of 15 to 24 years, and is most common in individuals who have multiple sex partners. Study done on gonorrhea diagnostics market, states a fact that according to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), gonorrhea is the second most common disease reported. In the United States, it roughly affects 800,000 individuals every year. In most of the cases, gonorrhea causes no symptoms; in fact one may not even have a clue that he or she is infected. In men, gonorrhea symptoms are swelling in the testicles, pain while urinating, and discharge of pus. Whereas, in women, symptoms such as abdominal pain, excess vaginal discharge, and painful urination. Gonorrhea results in certain complications like Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and Epididymitis.
Gonorrhea Diagnostics Measures
Earlier, gonorrhea was diagnosed with the help of culture and gram stain. However, as technology advanced, latest polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing techniques are more common and widely used. Diagnostic test for gonorrhea consists of:
- Flow cytometry
- Diagnostic imaging
- Molecular diagnostics
- Gel microdroplets
- Monoclonal antibodies test
- Differential light scattering
Amongst the above-mentioned diagnostic tests, molecular diagnostics is the most commonly conducted test. Molecular diagnostic tests comprise of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAAT) – these tests are very precise and extremely sensitive for swab and urine tests. They are also approved by the United States FDA.
Gonorrhea culture test is done to determine the bacteria which cause gonorrhea infection. Bodily fluid samples from areas like rectum, cervix, eye, urethra, or throat is taken and a factor that boosts the growth of bacteria is added to it. After the test, if there is no substantial growth in the bacteria, the tests results are negative. The period of incubation for gonorrhea is different among women and men. In women, it usually takes 7 to 21 days for the symptoms to surface and in men, between 2 to 14 days. Surprisingly, nearly 50% of women show no said symptoms when in early stage and at the time of pregnancy, the disease might affect the fetus while delivering the baby.
Disclaimer: The information given in this write-up is purely for educating the reader. It is not meant to be a substitute for any advice from a medical expert.