Diamond and other GemstonesDiamond is the most well-known transparent gemstone-quality crystalline form of carbon and it is known to be the hardest natural substance on earth. Diamonds are not just prized and renowned worldwide for their extraordinary hardness, additionally for their high refractive index and their amazingly high scattering rate of visible light. Although white diamonds are by a wide margin the most prevalent colored diamonds, other favor diamonds hues incorporate pink, red, blue, orange, and black. Red diamonds are really one of the rarest gemstones on the planet. Yellow and brown diamonds are the most commonly occurring diamonds. These all happens due to chemical impurities like different gemstones, the shade of red diamonds is the one of the unique property formed by minute defects in the crystal grid. The most famous use of the diamond in jewelry is in engagement rings. There are four grading aspects to evaluate the diamond, which is well known as the four C’s, illustrated by the GIA, which are Color, Cut, Clarity, and Carat weight. Most diamonds shape under extraordinary weight and at high temperatures, regularly at depths of more than 140 kilometers inside Earth's mantle. On an average, diamond formation happens over times of 1 to 3.3 billion years. Although, the major use of diamond is in the area of jewelry and also somehow diamonds are used as sharp edge tool for several operation in hospitals.

The first was diamond discovered in 1866 on the banks of the Orange River and became to be known as the Eureka Diamond. Most diamonds used as gemstones are colorless or very slightly colored. However, colored diamonds are well-known as "fancies”, which can be tremendously rare and valuable as well, and the most expensive gemstones ever acknowledged have been fancy diamonds. In fact, fancy diamonds are the most valuable substances known to man-kind, with vibrant colored diamonds historically being sold for the price of more than a million dollars per carat. A recent report on diamond and gemstone market states that, other gemstone like sapphire and ruby, both are gems of the mineral corundum. These gems comprise of a similar compound creation and a similar mineral structure. Blue and red are only two of the several colors established in gem corundum’s. Measures of different components can deliver splendid Purple, green, yellow, and orange gems. Blue corundum are known as "sapphires," red corundum are known as "rubies,” and corundum’s of different other color are termed as "fancy sapphires." Corundum develops gems in a range of different colors. Emeralds are jewel quality member of the beryl mineral family with a rich distinctly green shading. They are found in igneous, transformative, and sedimentary rocks on a small scale of areas around the world.