Globally, there is a prevalent concern that wide usage of animals for several laboratory experiments is not ethically permissible. There is a constant criticism coming from the Animal Welfare Group’s across the world. Presently, more and more research workers prefer to use animal cell cultures wherever possible for different studies. Animal cell culture was for the very first time successfully undertaken by Ross Harrison in 1907. However, numerous developments pertaining to these findings occurred not until the late 1940’s to early 1950’s, which made the animal cell culture broadly available as a tool for scientists. The cells and tissue culture are commonly used in the laboratory. Today, cultures have become much broadly used post the availability of characterized cell media, which render a controlled environment. According to the study done on animal cell culture market, it has been stated that the nine applications of animal cell culture are toxicity testing, model systems, cancer research, genetic counseling, virology, cell-based fabrication, gene therapy, genetic engineering, and drug screening and development.
A few main advantages associated with the use of animal cell culture:
- Homogeneity and characterization of the samples
- Having a control on the environment
- In vitro modeling of in vivo conditions
- Scale, economy and mechanization of culture
- Preventing animal experiments
Determined by their origin, animal cells grow as an adherent monolayer or in suspension.
Adherent cells – these will grow in vitro till the time they have covered the obtainable surface area and/or the medium is exhausted of the nutrients. They are dependent on anchorage and disseminate as a monolayer linked to the cell culture vessel. This attachment is crucial for the purpose of proliferation, most of the adherent cell cultures will terminate when they become affluent. Therefore, at this point the cells must be sub cultured so as to prevent them from dying. For cell subculture, they need to be brought into suspension.
Suspension cells – once the adherent cells reach confluence state, the cells in suspension clump together along with the medium seems murky when culture flask is whirled. Hematopoietic cells which have been derived from spleen, blood or bone marrow, also some transformed cell lines and cells inferred from malignant tumors can be grown in suspension.
Lastly, finite cultures, primary cells, and constant cell lines fluctuate in terms of their potentiality to proliferation. Various cell types are differing with respect to their growth behavior and nutritional requirements. Optimization of animal cell culture conditions is vital to ascertain that cells are healthy and in appropriate condition for several applications.