Pneumococcal disease pertains to a vast range of infections which are caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumonia/pneumonia. One of the most chronic infections, bacteraemia (which is an infection of the blood stream) and meningitis (swelling and inflammation of the membranes that enclose the brain), are the prime cause of deadly illnesses especially amongst children under two years of age and the elderly population. A few types of Streptococcus pneumonia are ordinarily found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals. Also, meningitis and bacteraemia, pneumococcal disease has the ability to cause septicaemia (blood poisoning), pneumonia (lung infection), and middle ear and sinus infections. Pneumococcal Vaccines are available which helps prevent pneumococcal disease. Vaccination can considerably decrease the risk of infection, and is mainly recommended as a routine part in immunization for individuals who face higher risk of this disease and its complications. Immunization against pneumococcal disease is gained single-disease vaccines. For infants, the first dose of pneumococcal vaccine is administered at two months of age, with consequent dosages at four and six months of age.
Different types of Pneumococcal Vaccine – the types of pneumococcal vaccine which an individual is given depend on the health and age. There are two types of vaccines available.
Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) – This is used to for vaccinating children who are less than two years of age, all the adults above 65 years of age and individuals from 2 to 65 years of age who have some specific medical condition. This vaccine is known by the brand name Prevnar13 and it helps protect against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria which are the most common causes of chronic and severe infections in adults as well as children.
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPV) – this vaccine is administered as a single dose to people who are 65 and above, and to someone who is at a greater risk owing to prolonged health conditions. This vaccine is known by the brand name Pneumovax23.
A recent study on pneumococcal vaccine market states a fact that there has been a confirmed severe allergic reaction known as the anaphylactic reaction, to the pneumococcal vaccine and/or some specific ingredient in the vaccine.