Endotracheal tubes are generally made of polyvinylchloride (PVC) and meant for single-use. Several variants of such designs exist in endotracheal tubes for specific purposes. These tubes are used for endotracheal intubation which is a medical procedure in which a tube is positioned into the windpipe, i.e., a trachea via the nose (nasotracheal)or mouth(orotracheal) in order to maintain an open airway. In most of the emergency grave situations, the endotracheal tube is generally placed through the mouth.This procedure is used to aid the delivery of anaesthetic gases or air to and from the patient’s body. Controlling the airway along with endotracheal tube is generally regarded as the ‘Gold Standard’. Whether the patient is conscious or unconscious, he or she will be given the medicine to make it simpler to introduce the tube. Post an endotracheal intubation; the patient will be mostly placed on a breathing machine.
Endotracheal intubation is done to either of the following cases:
To support breathing with a few specific illnesses, emphysema, heart failure, pneumonia, or collapsed lung
Enable the medical practitioner to get a clearer view of the upper airway
Eliminate the blockages from the airway
Open up the tracheal airway to provide medicine, oxygen and aesthesia
Safeguard the lungs of individuals who are not able to protect their airway and are at risk for breathing in fluid
However a complex study done on endotracheal tubes market states there are a few risks associated with endotracheal intubation – infection, bleeding, trauma to the voice box, thyroid gland, windpipe or esophagus, and/or puncture or tearing of internal body parts in the chest cavity, resulting in lung collapse.
Features of Endotracheal tube:
PVC, the material with which the tubes are made does not absorb x-rays. Therefore, the PVC tubes consist of a radio-opaque line, which makes them clearly visible on chest x-rays. Moreover, majority of the endotracheal tubes have a pilot balloon along with a non-locking Luer connector and a metal spring valve with help of which the cuff can be inflated. This pilot balloon enables visual and concrete valuation of whether the cuff is inflated enough or not.