Cyber security is also referred as computer security or IT security, is safeguarding computer systems and is applied to complete web (cyber) world, which includes everything right from computers to smartphones and many other automated devices which has web-connectivity. Cyber security renders protection from theft, or any kind of damage to the software, hardware and the information the system possesses. Also, it shields from disruption or misdirection of the services. The key objective of cyber security is to assure the level of confidentiality of the information that is shared across the internet. It is also used to monitor data in private as well as public computer networks which includes the internet to secure the information. Various components of cyber security are information security, application security, network security, operational security, disaster recovery / business continuity planning, and end-user education. The security facilitates protection from attacks such as hacking, injection of codes like Trojans, virus and other vulnerabilities, unauthorized access, etc. Today, cyber security is majorly involved in shielding and preserving information and systems from crucial and vital threats, such as cyber warfare, cyber espionage, and cyber terrorism. In the most riotous form, cyber threats take aim at political, secret, military, and/or infrastructural assets of a country and its citizens. Therefore, a survey done on cyber security market suggests that, cyber security is the most critical part of any governments’ security strategy. Since 2010, the United States federal government has assigned more than $13 billion each year to cyber security.

Several cyber risks can be divided into three distinct areas:

Cyber Warfare – This involves countries intruding and using information technology to infiltrate another country’s networks with the aim of causing disruption. Such attacks are mainly implemented by professional hackers who are thoroughly trained in exploiting the involutions of computer networks and function under the protection and support of the nation-states. A cyber warfare attack might enter networks for the sole purpose of compromising precious data. Also, this could involve the use of Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs).

Cyber Crime – It is generally done by individuals who are working alone, or in organized groups. For the purpose of extracting money, data or causing unwanted disruption including acquiring credit/debit card property.

Cyber Terror – A terrorist group is dedicatedly focused to cause disruption by using information technology and furthering their political or ideological agenda. A cyber terror attack would mean attacks on computer systems, telecommunication infrastructures, and networks.

Based on technology, cyber security is widely segmented into branches such as data encryption, antivirus, firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, and distributed denial of service (DDoS) mitigation. Data encryption is an algorithm used for the security of electronic data by ciphering the data with the help of symmetric key. Antivirus is a basic level of security in computer software used to detect and eliminate viruses and other malwares. Firewall is a network security system that keeps a tab and curbs the network traffic and particularly works on a set of network specified rules. DDoS mitigation comprises of a set of techniques to ascertain protection from denial of service attacks to those systems which are connected to the internet. Intrusion prevention systems are network security gizmos which closely monitor the system and network activities for malwares.